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"Chen gen kat pye, men li ka mache nan yon sèl chimen." A dog has four legs, but it walks in only one path.

Torbeck (Kreyol: Tòbèk) is a commune in the Les Cayes Arrondissement, in the Sud  department of Haiti. It has 69,189 inhabitants.

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Quiet seaside town of Torbeck, Sud, Haiti

Torbeck 111818
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AboutEdit

Torbeck, has four communal sections and two quarters. The city and the first communal section are coastal.

HistoryEdit

In the past, Torbeck was one of the most famous towns in the southern part of the country. A century earlier it had made considerable progress in the Les Cayes Borough. Historically it had played a role throughout the region. The commune had the name Moreau de Saint Remy since 1726 during the demolition of the primitive parishes. Torbeck was considered even more important than the city ​​of Les Cayes because one said the city of Torbeck is the region where the company of Santo Domingo had its agents of administration. In 1787 the parish counted 600 whites, 860 freedmen 11,000 slaves, 81 sugar mills, 28 water mills 18 indigo farms and 100 coffee fields.

Several events also wove the memory of this zone. At first the revolt of the black named Samedi had exploded in the plain of Torbeck, in October 1802 a few days after the taking of d'Armes d'Auguste to Saint-Louis-du-Sud. March 13, 1803 the French under the command of general Sarasin were obliged to barricade themselves in the church of St. Joseph of Torbeck. It should also be remembered that the conspiracy against the emperor James the First had begun on the Garata dwelling at the inquest of Messeroux, the Torbeck Peace Court on October 8, 1806. Later in 1844 and 1848 Torbeck was the main home of the South Brigades. . Diligent desenters led the mobile populations of the countryside the same spirit of disorder will manifest in the night of April 4 to 5, 1865 or bands gathered on the dwelling saint felix 2nd section. Finally in 1869 this commune was the theater of fierce struggles between the cacos and the pickets, the latter going tothe defense of President Salnave. Note that it is in the city church that was buried the steward Maillard who made the colony prosper, it is also in this town that was centered for the first time a soccer ball. Finally it is the hometown: the writer of the act of independence Mr. Boisrond Tonnèrre, the father of Fabre Geffard from the dwelling of perigny, General Jacques Wagnac who commanded Les Cayes in 1903.

GeographyEdit

Torbeck 111818a

Torbeck

LocationEdit

Torbeck is the second municipality of the Borough of Les Cayes, which is in the department of the South. It extends over an area of ​​201.86 square kilometers, between 18 degrees 20 'north latitude and 75 degrees 53' west longitude. it is about 6 km 4 mi from the city of Les Cayes and its inhabitants bear the name of Torbeckois.

Boundaries

The city of Torbeck is bounded on the north by the commune of Beaumont, on the east by the communes of Camp-Perrin and Les Cayes, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the communes of Chantal and Arniquet. The town has a flat configuration with the most characteristic features. Indeed it is an extension of the vast Les Cayes Plain, the coastal strip located west of Les Cayes; a swamp that is well suited to rice growing. in a general way the town offers a panorama of plains, plateaus, and valleys with some elevations in the regions of the Hatte Smanga, La source, Gros Morne, Gracia, Madan Julien, Lamonge, Morne Gerard, Morne Malval, Toro, Deronceray, and Boulard. Note that the mountainous areas are in the 3rd and 4th section.

SoilsEdit

The soils are partly rocky and marly, the alluvial deposits covering the plains are frankly calcareous in the northern zones, while towards the southwest they are made up of a mixture of limestone and volcanic debris. On the whole, the alluvial materials are a deep, sandy loam texture of friable consistency. The depot sequence shows no profile development. These soils offer excellent potential especially with regard to sugar production, food production, cereals and animal production. The red soils are found at the altitudes of La source, Lamonge, Madan Julien and Deronceray where yam and vegetables are mainly grown (cabbage, carrot, leek, thyme, etc.)

ClimateEdit

The average temperature of the zone is 21°C 70°F with a maximum of 27.64 82°F degrees in August (PDAET, 1996). With regard to the rainy season, the commune is not very favored. The most significant rainfall is recorded during the months of May to October, however in recent years there has been very great rainfall irregularity. According to the data collected in the 1970s and 1980s, the annual rainfall record was estimated at an average of 1000 to 1500 mm 39" to 59" (DIRP, 1985). Winds are generally moderate, ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 m / s, with an annual average of 2.3 m / s.

Water ResourcesEdit

At the commune level the water resources are relatively impotant. Many rivers crisscross the town. The Redon River crosses Bois Landry and the community of Redon; that of Labattie, Larnage, Poteau, Desrodieres, and Bourry water the first section of Bourry, and the river penetrates the interior of the town of Torbeck; the Rivière Acul which serves as a border to the towns of Arniquet and Chantal waters Bourry, Béraud and Solon; that of Bras de Gauche waters the section 4e Moreau; the Rivière Bouda Mouillé runs through Gauvin, Charlette and Rock, when dry and when mad it goes to the 4th Moreau section. To this list is added the sources of Desgrottes, Gauvin, Poteau; Ravine Sable, l'Estère, Poteaux, Desrodières at the Bourry level and the dry one on the Major dwelling belonging to the 3rd section of Solon.

But the most important of these rivers are the South River and the Torbeck River. The latter has its source in the heights of the Platons and sprinkles particularly, 1st Bourry and 2nd Beraud.

VegetationEdit

The municipality of Torbeck as a whole is covered by a fairly important training that combines with farming or livestock systems to form highly profitable agro-forestry units.

This training includes both local and exotic species. The exotic species introduced by the reforestation or soil conservation programs launched by PADF or ORE, Haiti verte, among these species we find: cedar, acasia, eucalyptus, cassia , white wood and these fruit species such as grafted French mango and some varieties of citrus.

Local species dominate the coconut tree and the true tree and certain other species such as mango, avocado, almond, ash, hourglass, elm wood, mahogany and oak. The thicket is mostly young trees, upright shrubs and branches. The agroecological situation of the region greatly influences plant distribution. 

Ecological agro - zone

Depending on the characteristics of the environment, the municipality of Torbeck can be divided into four agro-ecological zones.

·The low-lying, low-rainfall coastal plain area where rice, mazonbelle and banana are grown, in this zone the vegetation is mainly dominated by the coconut tree and the breadfruit tree.

· The average altitude dry mountain area​​ where one grows food and cereals, the vegetation is more or less diversified by the presence of other forest and / or fruit species.

·The wet humid mountain area mainly is mainly located at the 3rd and 4th sections in the high altitudes. LaSource, Morne Gerard, and Toro are where some of the market gardeners cultivate yams and cereals.

· The very humid mountain area where market gardening flourishes, such as carrot, beetroot, cabbage and thyme.

DemographyEdit

According to some geographical redistributions, the municipality of Torbeck offers an irregularly evolving demographic. In 1950, the census counted 36,491 inhabitants, in 1971 the population amounted to 56,144 and represents, in 1982, only 35,349. Thus, for the period 1950-1971, the annual increase was 2.1% to decrease from 1971 to 1982 (DIRP, 1985).

According to the preliminary results of the 4th general census, the current population of the commune would be 60,012 inhabitants (IHSI, RGPH-2003).

Year Population +/-
2003 60,012
2009 69,189 +15%
2015 78,602 +12%

 Source: (IHSI, RGPH-2003)

3.2.-Spatial distribution of the population

The municipality has a density of 297.29 inhabitants / km ² . The rural area comprises about 93.79% of the population against 6.2% in urban areas.

3.3.-Movement factors of the population

Emigration is the main factor of movement of the population. This movement is mainly related to the centralization of economic and financial activities, the precarious living conditions of the inhabitants and the lack of technical infrastructures (clinics, schools, universities, etc.), immigration is mainly constituted by the influence people from the south coast or from the nearby mountains.

3.4.-Housing and households

The municipality of Torbeck has 12,095 households. These households live largely in old buildings consisting mostly of thatched cottage covered with vetiver straw in some places can also find sheet metal roofs. Houses made of masonry are rare and reserved for an elite of privileged (officials, traders ...) and administrative buildings. It is also worth noting some extension areas that are characterized by well-built modern houses such as the city of Torbeck, Formont, Ducis, Lauzon, Gerard, Poteau , Houk, Desgrottes.

Apart from the partially electrified city of Torbeck, kerosene remains the main mode of lighting in the municipality, with rare generators and solar panels being held by services and a few private ones.  

Administrative Division

The municipality of Torbeck as a whole includes the city of Torbeck, two neighborhoods: the district of Ferme le Blanc and that of Ducis and four communal sections:

-1 st Boury section

-2 nd section Berreau

-3 rd section Solon

-4 th Moreau section

These sections include a total of 85 localities and 59 habitations.

The following table gives a presentation of the communal sections with their different characteristics.


Communal sections Position Dominant relief Climate Number of habitations Number of localities Area in km²
1 st Boury section Seaside Plain

Normal

8 38 42.71
2 nd section Berreau inland Plain Normal 2 12 49.99
3 rd Solon section interior Plain Normal 33 14 48.98
4 th Moreau section inland Plain Fresh 16 21 60.18

Source: IHSI, 1998  

AgricultureEdit

Like the other communes of the country, the majority of the population Torberkoise lives from agriculture. As a result, given the overexploitation of arable land and the limited resources allocated to this activity, agriculture provides a low yield and has often proved incapable of meeting the needs of farmers. Nevertheless, the region has some favorable conditions, the main ones being:

- very diversified agricultural production

- Topography relatively favorable to agriculture.

- Food production and important cereal

- The existence of several PPIs (Small Irrigated Perimeters )

Availability of cultivable land

The fertility of the lands, especially those of the plains,is relatively good and the land pressure does not reach an alarming threshold, as is the case in some parts of the country. The farmers have between 1 and 8 squares of land planted with crops.

EconomyEdit

Agriculture is the basis of the Torbeck economy; In order of importance, maize, rice, millet and black beans are found in the lowland areas. In the mountains, tuber cultivation {sweet potatoes, potatoes, cassava, taro, yam} largely dominates. Fishing is also dominant on the coast.

Concerning the economic and financial establishments, they are non-existent in the municipality of Torbeck. There is only one Caisse-Populaire.

Agriculture Edit

Some 15 kilometres of irrigation canals in the commune of Torbeck are in the rehabilitation phase. The work is co-financed by UNDP, WFP and the local graphing firm, which is also responsible for its implementation. Objective of the project: to promote the increase in agricultural production in the area.
The irrigation system of the commune of Torbeck did not work at full efficiency, the old canals being, in some places, dilapidated and filled with alluvial. A situation due to environmental degradation, weather and other factors. And among other consequences, the reduction of the flow of water transported and consequently of the irrigated area. Another negative impact, flooding across the plain when it rains rain.

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Education center; Torbeck, SD, Haiti

GovernmentEdit

The city of Torbeck does not enjoy the privilege of having representations of the autonomous central administration. Theoretically, the role of the administration in a city is to enable this city to meet the needs and requirements of the people in its area of ​​local and regional influence.                                                                                 In fact, all powers are centralized and concentrated in Les Cayes or Port-au-Prince. Local dependence on administrations such as TPTC, MARNDR, MENJS, justice, interior, planning, trade, finance, information, social affairs, which are found at the departmental level is often ineffective.

Like any commune, Torbeck is subdivided into communal sections. According to the constitution of 1987, the municipality is autonomous and administered by an elected municipal council whose president is the magistrate.

The municipality has an operating budget fed by ordinary revenue collected by the DGI at the level of the public markets and extraordinary revenues collected directly by the City Council (tax, laissez-passer). The communal sections represent for their part the smallest administrative entities of the municipality. They are theoretically administrated by the boards of administration of the communal section (CASEC) whose essential attributions are the following ones:

- Stimulate and maintain progress in the population through collective action

-Promote the creation of organizations of public utility: schools, dispensaries, sports centers, etc.

-Recover and administer for the exclusive benefit of the community any contribution, voluntary contribution, donation, etc., to finance the execution of the projects

- ensure that birth and death declarations are made to the Registrar.

It is noted that, exceptionally, the incumbent municipal council is the result of an appointment under the proposal of the civil society and that there is no CASEC at the level of the communal sections.

InfrastructureEdit

Education

The Ministry of National Education of Youth and Sports is not represented in the municipality of Torbeck. For schools, at the Kindergarten level there are two schools and at Primary level, schools including five public, dozens of private and three congregational. At the secondary level, four schools including one public and three private were inventoried in the commune.

Health

The Ministry of Public Health and Population is not represented in the Municipality of Torbeck. For health facilities, there are two clinics and a health center. In addition, five nurses and eight auxiliaries assist the sanitary service in the commune.

Utilities

As for water availability, nine rivers, eleven springs and 4 ponds were counted at the commune level. With respect to other water features, dozens of single wells, artesian wells, and pumps were recorded. The City Center, the 1st and 2nd communal sections have electricity. This service is provided by the Electricity of Haiti (EDH). The power frequency is 56 hours / week.

Security

With regard to the Administrative and Judicial Infrastructures, the municipality has a Court of Peace and a Sub-Commission. There is no prison, but a police custody room.

Torbeck MAP

Commune of Torbeck Map

Neighborhoods

TOB Torbeck 78,603
VTK Ville De Torbeck Urban 2,584
QDC Quartier Ducis Urban 1,882
QFL Quartier Ferme de Leblanc Urban 780
BRY 1ère Section Boury Rural section 27,156 Ca Louis, Carrefour Méridien, Cassagne-Finca, Chalette, Duverni, Formon, Godefroy, Grassette, Guillerme, Houck, Jauge, La Force, Mineur, Nan Goyave, Nan Redon, Poteau, Poterie, Praslin, Soulé, Welsh.
BRL 2ème Section Bérault Rural 22,032 Bauzan, Bellevue, Béraud, Bois Landry, Borgella, Boulé, Bourdet, Burin, Delfosse, Digue-Monville, Dumortier, Dumusat, Durocher, Gaston, Gérard, Guilloux, Jonca, Labeye, La Frésilière, Laumont, Monvide, Perigny, Saint-Félix, Surin, Tuffet.
SON 3ème Section Solon Rural section 17,634 Achille, Bézin, Billard, Billiard, Bois Pangrol, Canon, Carré, Chéramy, Dessources, Dubreuil, Ducis, Fond Vert, Gilgot, La Frésilière, Lagrou, Le Duc, Le Prêtre, Magnant, Monville, Possin, Régnier, Toro, Touya.
MRE 4ème Section Moreau Rural Section 7,593 Deronceley, La Coste, Lamonge, Malval, Moreau.
Torbeck River 21419

Torbeck River

CultureEdit

Religion

Nearly 69 temples of all beliefs have been enumerated in the commune. These temples are divided according to these faits: Catholic, Episcopal, Baptist, Adventist, Pentecostal, Wesleyan, Jehovah's Witness.

Organizations

With regard to the Parties and Organizations, there are two representations of Political Parties, two Popular Organizations, six farmers' groups, two Women's Groups and three Non-governmental organizations.

Communication

The municipality has no radio station, no newspaper / magazine or television station.

Leisure

As for Leisure, there is no library, museum, theater mor cinema in Torbeck. The only sport practiced is football (soccer). Two night clubs operating on Sundays and 21 gaguères were listed in the Commune. One finds at the level of the cultural heritages a fort (the fort of the platons). It should be noted that the Commune through its various chapels celebrates a good number of Patron Saints. The parish of Torbeck was created in 1719 under the patronage of St. Joseph.

the Fort des Platons is one of about twenty military works built on the territory of Haiti after independence in 1804: this defensive system was directed against a possible return of the French, former masters of the colony of Santo Domingo. The Fort des Platons was built under the direction of General Nicolas Geffrard, father of President Fabre Geffrard. The ruins of the fort are located in the district of Ducis.

Michael Vedrine

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