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"Anpil ti patat fè chay." A lot of small potatoes make a load.
-Haitian proverb


Carice (Kreyòl: Karis) is a remote town in the Northeast Department of Haiti and on the western border of the Dominican Republic, approximately 100 km (60 miles) northeast of Port-au-Prince and 35 km (22 miles) south of the Atlantic Ocean. It was incorporated in 1950. It is situated along the east bank of the Libon River in the Northern Massif Mountain Range, an extension of the Cordillera Central. The population was 13,615 at the 2015 census. Historically a coffee growing region, it has long since been relatively rich in water. It is part of the Vallières Arrondissement and the Greater Ouanaminthe metropolitan area.

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Carice, NE, Haiti

AboutEdit

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Location in Haiti

Originally the first communal section of Vallière, the commune of Carice was created by the Decree of the Northern Provisional Government in July 1889.

Carice, one of the thirteen communes of the Northeast Department, has two communal sections. The Municipality of Carice is an interior municipality, its dominant relief is the plain and its climate is cool. Its inhabitants bear the name of Caricien/ne.

The village is of little importance, from the point of view of the population.

HistoryEdit

• On January 8, 1889, Carice detached from the party of the Nordistes, and made its submission to the Government of the President Légitime.

• The first citizen who represented this commune to the Constituent Assembly sitting in Gonaïves, is named Jonathas Edouard Etienne.

GeographyEdit

According to the IHSI, the town has a total area of 55.97 square kilometers (21.61 mi²). 32.65 square kilometers (58%) of it is rural, 22.39 sq. km (40%) is suburban and 0.93 sq. km (2%) of it is urban. The town is bordered by Fort-Liberté to the north, Mont-Organisé to the east, the Dominican town of Restauraciòn to the southeast, Cerca-la-Source to the south, Mombin-Crochu to the west, and Vallières to the northwest. Notable villages in the town include Carice proper, on the town's eastern border; Cigarra, towards the north, in the Bois-Gamelle section of the town; and Nan l'Etat towards the town's southern border.

The municipalities of Carice and Mont-Organisé have a similar configuration. They form a more or less homogeneous unit dominated by plateau areas. The areas covered in these communes have allowed several types of environment to be distinguished. We can mention:

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The lagoons. These are areas of lowlands that are supplied with water by springs. This environment is found in both Carice and Mont-Organisé. Rainfed rice dominates this environment; however, cane can also be found.

A plateau area. It is a vast area of ​​great discovery with the exception of coffee-based agroforestry pockets. Red soils of the ferralitic type are encountered. This environment is found in the sections of Bois-Gammelle and Rose-Bonite in Carice and Savanette in Mont-Organisé. The cultivation of coffee is in net regression. Where it is practiced, it is associated with banana under cover of fruit and forest trees. On the whole, bean, yam, cassava and maize are widely grown.

A wet mountain area. This environment has good productive potential because of the relatively high rainfall. Ferralitic red soils are observed in this environment. An agroforestry system based on coffee exists at this level, but its extension is limited. The coffee has very low density, is associated with banana under cover of fruit trees and forest. Open spaces include cassava, beans, yams and sweet potatoes.


Neighborhoods Edit

CAR Carice 13,615
VCR Ville de Carice 4,711
1ère Section Bois-Camelle 2,516
RBN 2ème Section Rose Bonite 6,388

Demography

Year Population
1890 7,000
1998 11,871
2003 10,180 -14%
2014 13,408 +32%
2015 13,615 +2%

EconomyEdit

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Marché à Carice

Economically and financially, the municipality of Carice is very lightly endowed. There are no banks, hotels, or gas stations.

Carice is a rural area without as many sources of livelihood as in cities and industrialized towns. This is why people rely on agriculture for their main livelihood. Farmers in the town mostly harvest mangoes, bananas and coffee, which are considered the main and most popular products in the area.

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Active coffee industry employee

The municipality of Mont-Organisé presents the same scheme of space exploitation that the municipality of Carice does with a great proportion of dense agricultural zoning with medium density. During the colonial period, the middle was occupied by coffee growing. The climate of this area is appropriate for this crop because the larger areas are more than 400 meters above sea level. As in others already studied, coffee was produced in an agro-forestry system including banana and yam under cover of forest trees. This system survived after independence and coffee was the dominant culture of the region until the 80s.

In 1950, the road out of Ouanaminthe to Carice through Mont-Organisé was constructed with the main purpose of facilitating the flow of coffee and lumber. This road seemed to accelerate the process of deforestation of the area that began to evolve since the 1940s. The massacre of Haitians in the Dominican Republic in 1937 resulted in a wave of migration to the region and an agricultural colony was established at Mont-Organisé to settle the new arrivals. In the early 1960s, many coffee plantations were ransacked following an uprising against the Duvalier regime. From this period, producers began to replace coffee trees with food crops such as beans, maize, yams and bananas, not only because of lower prices, but also because of abuse of power. Mining between 1977 and 1980 also contributed to the reduction of forest cover in the area.

Today the coffee culture is disappearing in the region although the Dominican market offers an outlet for this product. The plantations are strongly attacked by root rot, bark beetle and rust. The cover trees have disappeared because of accelerated deforestation. Less than 10% of the land area is forested. Efforts have been made recently to improve coffee production in the area. RECOCARNO has supported coffee cooperatives in the regeneration and maintenance of old plantations and in the planting of new ones. The Interamerican Institute for Cooperation for Agriculture (IICA) contributed to the control of the bark beetle, but the results remained insignificant.

Thus, the agroforestry system that existed after independence gradually disappeared to make room for rooted culture. The decline of coffee due to pest attacks, low market prices and reduced farm size has made wood cover for charcoal production vulnerable. The most important crops currently in the area today are rice, beans, cassava, sugarcane, and yam. Coffee is also present on a very small scale, but is not the main source of income for farmers.

Farmers in the area are facing problems, especially in peak periods because of seasonal migration to the Dominican Republic. The harnessed culture was introduced in the area in the past. Some teams still exist but the demand exceeds the offer.

Like other areas, livestock is very present. Cattle, goats, horses, swine and poultry are found. However, the very frequent animal theft in this border area tends to discourage farmers.

For the communes of the Northeast, the average size of the farms decreases as one leaves from Carice to arrive at Bas-Maribahoux by way of Mont-Organisé and Haut-Maribahoux. Carice has the highest average farm area, 2.76 acres.

To compensate for the weakness of the internal labor force, a number of farmers rely on hired labor for their production needs. The percentage of farms using external labor varies from one area to another. It is 95% in Saint-Raphaël, 84% in Grison-Garde, 80% in Bahon, 50% in Borgne, 85% in Maribahoux, 84% in Mont-Organized and 68% in Carice. The demand for labor is very high during peak periods for soil preparation, planting, plot maintenance and harvesting. Whatever the operation, the cost of labor varies from 50 to 150 gourdes per head and per period of the day1. The lowest prices are observed in Bahon which is a dry mountain area.

Other economic activity includes coal manufacturing, small trades, trade, seedling production, and motorcycle taxi.

Agriculture

In Carice, agricultural production consists of coffee, beans, rice, potatoes, maize, cassava, vines and yam. There are practically the same crop systems identified in Mont-Organized. These two zones form an ensemble where farmers follow the same technical itineraries for the main crops. The farms also produce fruit such as avocado, orange, "chadèque" and mango. These fruit trees are very old because new plantations are rarely made.

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Coffee in Carice

Coffee system

Coffee was the main cash crop of the Carice farms. This crop is still present but it has become less important because the production is almost zero. Currently there is coffee at Bois-Gamelle and Caesar. As in Mont-Organisé and other coffee production areas in Haiti, coffee is produced in a three-tier system: (1) fruit trees (mango, avocado and citrus) and foresters (laurel, sucrin) and saman), (2) banana and coffee, and (3) tubers, especially taro. The varieties found in this area as well as the planting densities are the same as those in Mont-Organisé.

EnviornmentEdit

Though agriculture is the main source of livelihood in the town, deforestation is still common. As a matter of fact, deforestation affected the soil quality in the town. Despite this, however, the production of crops remains and continues to support people's livelihood.

ClimateEdit

Deforestation is not the only problem that the town faces when it comes to agriculture. Floods also provide a challenge to farmers. It is classified among the humid mountains and wetlands. The climate in Carice ranges from tropical hot to wet. Annual rainfall is usually in the range of 1,500 to 2,000 mm (Haiti average: 1,353mm (53in)). Significant variations in rainfall have been observed in recent years with a decrease in rainfall levels from north to south. The rainy periods are from September to December and from April to June. During rainy season, floods occur in parts of the town, affecting crops production. The drought periods are from January to March and from July to August.

The town of Mont-Organisé is part of the wet plateau that it forms with Carice.

In Carice, the summers are short, hot, oppressive, and overcast; the winters are comfortable, muggy, and mostly clear; and it is dry year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 15°C 60°F to 32°C 90°F and is rarely below 13°C 56°F or above 35°C 95°F.

Hydrography

The municipalities of Mont-Organisé and Carice are relatively rich in water. Because of their topography, they are drained by streams and temporary gullies that reinforce downstream of other rivers in the region.

At Mont-Organisé, we identify about 4 rivers that have a torrential profile upstream. These are the Rivière Marigaguère, the Rivière Ténèbre, the Rivière Clérisse and Balon. The main rivers of Carice are: the Rivière Ténèbre, Rivière Maricote and Rivière Carice. The conformation of the landscape associated with the topography facilitates the formation of a large number of small lagoons distributed throughout the communal area. These lagoons are valued with rice production.

Soils

The Carice plateau is dominated by metamorphic formations and quartz diorites with varying degrees of evolution. The soils of the town are mainly clay and loam. Like Mont-Organisé, Carice has red soils in different places.

InfrastructureEdit

Transportation

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Route Trou-Zombi; Carice, NE, Haiti

Aside from crop production woes, floods also affect the transportation in the area. Roads become impassable during floods and river banks are damaged. Because of this, residents often walk and use donkeys to go around the town.

When it comes to air travel, people in Carice have to go to Port-au-Prince or Cap-Haïtien International Airport for a flight.

Education

The Ministry of National Education of Youth and Sports is not represented in the Municipality of Carice. A kindergarten, 2 public primary schools, private and two of congregational type have been inventoried in the Commune. In addition, at secondary level, there are two secondary schools (one public and one private).

Health

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On the wall of the public clinic: "wash the fruits and vegetables with treated water"

The Ministry of Public Health and Population is not represented in the Municipality of Carice. Two clinics were inventoried with a medical staff of three auxiliaries, a certified matron and a laboratory technician.

Utilities and Communication

The municipality of Carice has three rivers, 24 springs and 17 lagoons. In addition, public fountains equipped with seven taps and one pump were inventoried in the commune. At the time of the inventory, the municipality of Carice was not electrified, there was no telephone.The postal office exists only in the city. The Municipality of Carice has no radio station, newspaper / magazine or television station.

Security

With regard to the administrative and judicial infrastructures, the commune has one police station, a court of peace and a registry office.

CultureEdit

Religion

In the field of religion, about ten churches (chapels and temples included) have been inventoried in the Municipality of Carice.

Organizations

Two Political Parties are represented in the Municipality of Carice. Seven grassroots organizations, two farmer groups and one women's group have also been identified.

LeisureEdit

As for Leisure, the municipality of Carice has no library, museum, or movie theater. The parish hall serves as a theater room. Football (soccer) and volley ball, despite the lack of appropriate terrain are the sports practiced in the municipality. There is a field for football, but, it is in poor condition. There are also eleven gaguères and a public square in the town.


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Sonrisas de Carice, Haiti

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Savanne-Salee, Carice, Haiti

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Neighborhoods Edit

CAR Carice 13,615
VCR Ville de Carice Urban 4,711
1ère Section Bois-Camelle Rural 2,516 Bois Gamelle, Cigarra, Eau-Garice, Face-Au-Nord, Savane-Salée.
RBN 2ème Section Rose-Bonite Rural Section 6,388 Albert-Derina, Carice, Carrefour, Cesar, Francois-Pierre, Moïse, Morne-à-Tuf, Nan Gustin, Nan l'Etat, Nan Vilmé, Wacacou.
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Section Rose-Bonite

ReferencesEdit

Bienvenue a Carice [1] Michael Vedrine

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